Now in its fourteenth year theTeam America Rocketry Challenge (TARC) has helped to build the next generation of engineers and technicians to join the aerospace industry. The Aerospace Industries Association's signature program and the only aerospace-specific national STEM competition, TARC has reached over 60,000 students and involved 4,000 students in 48 states during the 2015 season alone.
An extra-curricular hands-on project-based learning program, the TARC competition is modeled around the aerospace industry’s design, fabrication and testing processes. All students participate in a team of 3-10 students to design, build, and fly a rocket. Like aerospace companies work within specific design parameters, every year the challenge requires teams to achieve the same basic mission-oriented goals of hitting a precise altitude, landing within a specific flight time window, and returning raw eggs (”the astronaut”) without cracking. Each year a unique task is also included; this year we are challenging those students who win a spot at the National Finals to be able to fly their rockets to two separate altitudes. The target flight heights will differ between the first and second flight.
TARC gives students opportunities to apply their math and science skills to a real world project outside of the classroom. For many students, this experience yields their first significant personal realization of how what they are learning in school is relevant to endeavors that are fun, challenging, and represent potential future career pathways. Through TARC, students have discovered that they enjoy solving math and science problems in the context of resolving difficult and complex design issues. Often TARC is also their first exposure to the aerospace industry. They learn what aerospace engineers and skilled technical workers do and what it takes to become one of those professionals.
Sport rocket motors approved for sale in the United States are stamped with a three-part code that gives the modeler some basic information about the motor's power and behavior. For example, a "C6-3" designation indicates that the total impulse of the motor ("C"), This number specifies the average thrust ("6"), and finally, the last number indicates the time delay between burnout and recovery ejection ("3").
Total impulse is a measure of the overall total energy contained in a motor, and is measured in Newton-seconds. The letter "C" in our example motor above tells us that there is anywhere from 5.01 to 10.0 N-sec of total impulse available in this motor.
In a typical hobby store you will be able to find engines in power classes from 1/2A to D. However, E, F, and some G motors are also classified as model rocket motors, and modelers certified for high power rocketry by the NAR can purchase motors ranging from G to K.
Since each letter represents twice the power range of the previous letter, total available power increases rapidly the further you progress through the alphabet.
Average thrust is a measure of how slowly or quickly the motor delivers its total energy, and is measured in Newtons. The "6" in our example motor tells us that the energy is delivered at a moderate rate (over about 1.7 seconds). A C4 would deliver weaker thrust over a longer time (about 2.5 seconds), while a C10 would deliver a strong thrust for a shorter time (about a second).
As a rule of thumb, the thrust duration of a motor can be approximated by dividing its total impulse by its average thrust.
Keep in mind that you cannot assume that the actual total impulse of a motor lies at the top end of its letter's power range -- an engine marked "C" might be engineered to deliver only 5.5 Newton-seconds, not 10.
The rocket is traveling very fast at the instant of motor burnout. The time delay allows the rocket to coast to its maximum altitude and slow down before the recovery system (such as a parachute) is activated by the ejection charge.
The time delay is indicated on our sample motor is 3 seconds. Other typical delay choices for C engines are 5 and 7. Longer delays are best for lighter rockets, which will coast upwards for a long time. Heavier rockets usually do better with shorter delays -- otherwise the rocket might fall back down to the ground during the delay time.
Motors marked with a time delay of 0 (e.g., "C6-0") are booster engines. They are not designed to activate recovery systems. They are intended for use as lower-stage engines in multi-stage rockets. They are designed to ignite the next stage engine immediately once their own thrust is finished. Often their labels are printed in a different color to help prevent you from using them in a typical rocket. In a multi-stage rocket, you would usually select a very long delay for your topmost engine.